Why have instructor competencies for online instructors? 

Many factors influence the outcomes of instruction. The instructor4s role in the success of instruction, including learner retention and achievement, is clearly documented. In online learning, this role is even more critical, as the instructor has to help learners overcome potential barriers caused by technology, time, and the way interactions with learners and the instructor occur. The following online instructor competencies come from instructional theory and research, as well as many years of combined (mine and others4) experience as an online learner, instructor, and instructional designer.